Life Events aor Lamhe view
For adult educators, workers and young people take part in the training of the great attractions of the literature examining the development life cycle is that you can identify qualities or owned distinctive problems of young people and adults. If this can be done then there are grounds for the development of specialties such as youth work and adult education or learning. In the latter case, for example, we could explore the possibilities around since the process – adults think differently? (This is what has come to the center of the theory andragogy of Knowles) situations – are in different circumstances in other age groups? experiences – not the accumulation of experience that is changing. What dispute have been for a wide range of things to do? Another interest i s if there are qualities that are especially for young people or adults, may have consequences for the kind of learning environments that can and should be encouraged – and what material should be treated. Development How can we define development? The first element is the change and clear – that development involves moving from one state to another. Consequently, interest in development led to a concern for transitions. How is that a person passes from this state on this? A second aspect is that this change is deemed to have a lasting impact or sustainable, or at least have some degree of "deferment." However, the development is not a change of any kind. The feeling of fullness after eating go od clearly implies a change but nobody wanted to see the development … The reference to a lasting change does not provide a satisfactory solution, because some changes are clearly development can not result long term, serve their purpose at the time but leave no lasting impression … On the other hand, some degree of delay seems to be necessary for most aspects development. (Rutter & Rutter, 1992: 63) Third place in the development of common usage often refers to growth, an increase in certain stages. More than that, it is nfolding often linked to one or a movement towards a fixed point. In terms of human development concept in common use here is the "maturity." Here we enter into a disputed territory. Although it is possible to reach agreement on where to stop physical growth, how Do can approach the development of personality? This may be due to a person or culture, perhaps none of it to another. In addition, the "maturity" is something that is probably shows a ction – and this may be appropriate behavior in one context or the situation is not in another. Some authors have tried to find a way to avoid this by turning to extremes, as adults, individuality, inner unity, self-actualization and so on. However, each of these concepts is always the responsibility of a particular historical moment and culture – and there are different problems thought to be universal. Based on these elements Rutter and Rutter (1992: 64), use the following command as a working definition of development in relation to humans: systematic, organized change within the person clearly associated with the general evolution predictable age-related and extends in a way that has implications for the model of a person or a level of performance in a thereafter, the concern here intraindividual change highlights a problem in some literature. There was a tendency to focus on what happens inside the individual and the corresponding lack of recognition forces or interpersonal and social dynamics (see the individuality). This relates to all rather sterile debates feed nature which were particularly numerous in the years 1960 and 1970. We can say today with the development of genetic research and more sophisticated self-recognition Similarly, the emphasis is more about gene-environment interaction. That means finding different ways including genetic influences can guide and open people in different ways to environmental influences, and how environmental elements may belong to a genetic inheritance. However, looking at a definition like this, can be caught in the notion of "profit" – may have some changes or transitions – but are all moves forward? What are these changes? An attractive way Internships handling the idea of development was through the idea that people go through different stages. People are considered progression systematically and in a certain order through a series of phases. Step by step, which is close to some form of adult status. This movement can be seen as a change in the physical and intellectual (eg about changes in intelligence experience and the ability to reason), and the impact of events of life and experiences. E Aristotle proposed a model of three floors, divided nine lives Solon seven steps five, six steps identified Confucius, the Sayings of Parents (the Talmud) contain fourteen stages, and Shakespeare suggested seven steps (Tennant and Pogson 1995: 69). A popular way of expressing this is Levinson (see below and taken to Tennant and Pogson 1995). In this model, each era has its distinctive character and the unification of learning "(op. cit. 72). Each transition between times requires a change in the nature of life (and may take three to six years to complete.) At the same time there is a process of individuation. Table 1: Levinson on the development (Tennant and Pogson 1995) Levinson says that the life cycle includes a sequence of four periods, each about 25 years. It also identifies a number periods of development within these periods, it focuses on the early and middle adulthood. Times and the great periods of development, identifies are: 1. Children and adolescence: Birth to twenty (transition from infancy to age three years) 2. In adulthood, ages 17 to 45 adults in the transition D twenty-first seventeen years Enter the world of adults-22 to 28 the age of thirty years of transition-Settling 28-33 33-40 3. Middle adulthood forty to sixty and five mid-life transition-forty-forty-five middle-aged 45-50 years fifty-odd transition from 50 to 55 middle adulthood, 55 to 60 4. adulthood late: the age of sixty on the transition of adults in the last minute-sixty to sixty-five According to Levinson, each era has its distinctive character and column cord of life. Each transition between the ages thus requires a fundamental change in the character of life, which may take three to six years. In times development are good times, each period is characterized by a set of tasks and an attempt to build or modify the structure of your life. For example, in the first period of transition for adult two main tasks are to leave the pre-adult world and take a preliminary step in the adult world. Similarly, during the period of colonization Down the two tasks are to establish a place in society and work for progress and advancement in this niche. A pervasive theme throughout the ages, is the existence of "sleep." Has the quality of vision, imagined possibility that generates excitement and vitality. It is our projection of the ideal life. The location and nature of the "dream" in life is constantly reviewed and modified throughout life that one imagines himself in relation to the world as it is lived. Another fundamental processes that occur throughout the life cycle is that of individuation. This is the evolving relationship between the self and the outside world throughout life. It begins with understanding am ng the child's separate existence in a world of animate and inanimate. Tasks is evident in the initial phase of the transition to an adult of the main tasks to amend or terminate existing relationships with family and other important and re-evaluate and modify the car. In fact, many advances in development is expressed in terms the changing nature of the relationship between self and others, such as mentoring relationships, relationships and family and professional relationships. In the forties, relations are reviewed again, taking the form of a struggle between the polarities of attachment and separation: We use the term "crisis" in general terms to encompass all the forces that bind people and the environment. To be sure, must be the age in question, the needy, fashion research, the earth …. In the opposite is the separation. This is not the same as isolation and loneliness. Spread when a person is mainly involved in their inner world, a world of imagination, fantasy, play. His main interest is not adapting to "real world", but in construction and explore a fantasy world the closed world of internal autonomy [Levinson, 1979: 239]. Midlife Levinson seen as a period where we need to address the prevalence of attachment with the outside world to find a better balance between the needs of self and societal needs – further integration of separation and attachment, "individuation Grand allows more from the world, more independent and self production. But it also gives you the confidence and understanding have stronger attachments in the world and feel more fully a part of it "(p. 195). Individuation is also evident in the attempt to integrate polarities in the car, such as the masculine polarity and female, and the polarity between young and old, destruction and creation. The process of individuation is paradoxical: it suggests a movement away from development world, but this independence and the separation is used to make the individual part of the world and integrate previously separate himself. As Rutter and Rutter said in these models had a universal focus on development rather than individual differences. Thus, Freudian theory has emphasized psychosexual stages, oral, anal, latency, phallic and genital. Piaget, however, focused on cognitive mechanisms in the progression of the sensorimotor stage of infancy through pre-operational stage of concrete operations (in which logical reasoning comes to the front) or adolescence. Kohlberg extended the approach to moral development, with stages representing different levels of moral maturity (pre-classical, classical, etc). Gesell Development plotted in terms of a series of milestones in the physics engine, and the sensory area. Erikson also saw the development as a step by step, but differ from others by its emphasis the importance of interaction with society and the extent of development and through adulthood. It focuses on the psycho-social transitions in stages characterized by a certain age of social tasks and crises affecting functions such as identity, privacy and generativity. There are a number of issues such theories. The first is the extent of their efforts. In trying to be theories Universal, trying to explain all aspects of our development, reaching more than themselves. While there may be universal growth when we consider the individual facts of life are rarely as simple as that. Second, as Rutter and Rutter (op cit) new comment by focusing on scenes of the theories in question affect the "predictability mechanic who is at odds with the dynamics of change in flow measurement in time and degree of individual variability seems to be the case. "Here, only we must reflect on our own biographies and in turn to one of these theories of the scene. The movement through our lives is not so clear There are all sorts of stuttering steps forward, not backward, and broken. Thirdly, our own biographies can be a significant difference in the footsteps of the theories. "Steps" is bound to, other ways to describe a phase or experience may be more appropriate. The reality is that in all these areas is not a universal path, and there is a fixed end point – the normal term. Detailed studies of socio-emotional development reveals a different story: "It is likely that children take a variety of ways, and adult outcomes can be substantially reduced differences in levels of maturity "(op. cit.). Gender, Culture and political expediency Besides all this are questions of any way to know if the theories of scenery, such as those developed by Kohlberg, Erikson and Piaget are universally applicable. They were trained in social contexts – and the research carried out largely against children and men. Perhaps the best known repetition of the arguments surrounding this issue is the controversy "Kohlberg-Gilligan (discussed at some length on the moral theory of Benhabib 1992: 148-202, 1988 Tennant also mentions). Basically, the application starts as Gilligan and her colleagues was that the research on Kohlberg's moral development reflects a long gender bias. This, for example, certain "characteristics female "as a concern relations have been underestimated by researchers. This means that when women took the tests involved in research Kohlberg always lower scores than men. There are all sorts of issues surrounding this debate, even the danger of falling into essentialist positions that are not "natural" differences with regard to ethics and moral development between men and women. However, it remains a constant challenge to universal theories of this type. We can use other matters relating to cultural prejudices. Many theories have been important developments in the value systems, and a limited range of crops. The problem was that after sold in the seemingly universal theories. If our sense of individuality varies from one culture to another, then this place a question mark against major development theories of universal adult. The events are examined approaches that try to trace the path of the stages or phases of life – as Tennant and Pogson said, 'periods stability, balance and equilibrium that alternate in a predictable in general terms with periods of instability and transition. "Alternatively, we can compare to theorists who stress the large differences in the way courses whose lives are made. One way of looking at things is to see the disruptive effect of life events or transitions (He defined as discontinuity in the life of a person) and the scale of adjustment needed. that produces stress and cope with the concept of research is vital to an event refers to the evolution of the life of an individual who may have an impact on behavior later. These large changes can be negative, as the death of a close relative or positive, such as marriage. Increasingly important life events, minor life events "without problems" or "pupil." For example, an argument could be too much to do, to can be a meeting of good friends. An individual life events is often measured using lists event that the person has to check. Methodological problems (eg, reluctance to report problems very particular) have driven the development clinical interviews. Models of life events were incorporated into theoretical models to explain adaptation. An example is a well known model of adaptation made by the research effort Lazarus RS, which focuses on cognitive appraisal of the event. This assessment includes the personal interest of the event, its potential to affect well-being (evaluation primary) and evaluation options can be used to cope (secondary appraisal). One way to analyze the adjustment process, this assessment would result favorable or unfavorable settlement (or no resolution) and, possibly, interrogation, there is a change of circumstances. The model was applied to a variety of factors of stress including bereavement. Life events in the perspective of Lazarus approach to life has also been used to develop a lifetime. This model takes into account life events during her life or socio-historical context. Deaths a spouse, for example, can have a devastating effect on the age of thirty-five to eighty and five years. The change in the meaning of a life event, according to their position in life, has led to the BL Neugarten Gerontologist distinguish between "on time" and events "out of time." View of life has encouraged the examination of life events in the general concept of a life story. Individuals create life stories in general. The history of life is recreated and revised in an effort to provide a lifetime "with a sense of unity and purpose" (McAdams, 1992, p. 344). Of According to McAdams DP psychologist life, including life events, "nuclear episodes" – show a continuity or change over time, apart from its conceptualization in a life history, life events may be considered in relation to identity, therefore, life .. SK Whitbourne psychologist describes life events as well assimilated and adapted to the identity by changing to accommodate the event. A person who uses the assimilation often can deny the importance of signs related with age or life-threatening condition.
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